The tropical waters around Mozambique support a range of coastal and seabirds such as the African Penguin (EN), Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross (EN), Black-browed Albatross (VU), Wandering Albatross (VU), Madagascar Pratincole (VU), White-chinned Petrel (VU), Grey Petrel (NT), Sooty Shearwater (NT), Shy Albatross (NT), White-capped Albatross (NT), Crab Plover (LC), Soft-plumaged Petrel (LC), Flesh-footed Shearwater (LC), Wedge-tailed Shearwater (LC), Bridled Tern (LC), Lesser Crested Tern (LC), Sooty Tern (LC), and Common Tern (LC). As there are no major seabird breeding colonies no seabird IBAs were initially identified in this country. The Zambezi Delta area is a hotspot for migratory species from Europe and Asia in the austral summer as well as being an important site for coastal wading birds.
Key threats to seabirds in Mozambique include:
o Oil pollution
o Overfishing (especially when illegal fishing measures such as dynamite and poison are used) and bycatch
o Conversion of coastal habitats for uses such as: agriculture, aquaculture, port/harbour expansion and urban development
o Invasive species
o Develop conservation policies for protection of the high seas beyond the EEZ
o Better cooperation with other West Indian Ocean countries on biosecurity to tackle the threat of invasive species
o Develop, alongside neighbouring countries, a set of guidelines for the environmental impact assessment for oil and gas exploration and other developments in the coastal and marine environment
o Better enforce laws and develop procedures to deal with oil pollution from shipping
o Move towards muti-species management and place a stronger focus on ecosystem based approaches to fishing management as well as strengthening the Compliance, Monitoring and Surveillance systems
o Develop research into the economic value of marine ecosystem services in the West Indian Ocean.
Government's support/relevant policy
In Mozambique the area 100 km inland from the HWM, 25km at estuaries, outwards is defined as a coastal zone. Mozambique is a Contracting Party of the Nairobi Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region which covers the coastal environment and EEZ of Mozambique. As part of the Convention Mozambique agreed to the Protocol Concerning Protected Areas and Wild Fauna and Flora in the Eastern African Region. The Protocol lists species which are protected under the convention and urges Mozambique and other Contracting Parties to maintain essential ecological processes and life support systems, to preserve genetic diversity, and to ensure the sustainable utilization of harvested natural resources under their jurisdiction. Existing MPAs correlate closely with IBAs. Please see policy tab for list of agreements that this country is party to.
Petrels and shearwaters
Gulls and terns
Ducks, geese and swans
Feare, C.J. 1984. Seabird status and conservation in the tropical Indian Ocean. Chap. 26, p. 457-471. In: Croxall, J.P., Evans, P.G.H. and Schreiber, R.W. (eds.) Status and Conservation of the World's Seabirds. ICBP Technical Publication No. 2.
Fishpool, L.D.C. & Evans, M.I. (eds). 2001. Important Bird Areas in Africa and related islands: priority sites for conservation. Pisces Publications and Birdlife International (Birdlife Conservation Series 11). Newbury and Cambridge. 1144pp
BirdLife International (2013) Country profile: Mozambique. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/country/mozambique. Checked: 2013-12-09