This is an extract from the BirdLife Policy Brief for CBD COP-10, Nagoya – BirdLife Policy Brief for CBD COP-10, Nagoya – Financial Resources
Effective implementation of the CBD continues to be severely hampered by insufficient financial resources. This is a pervasive problem but at its most acute in developing countries.
An in-depth review conducted in the lead up to COP-9 found that the level of biodiversity funding decreased in the period 2002–2006 compared with 1998–2002 (UNEP/CBD/COP/9/16). In response to its recommendations, Parties adopted a new strategy for mobilising financial resources, agreed a framework for effective guidance on funding priorities to the Global Environment Facility (GEF) as the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, and initiated a process to identify innovative financing mechanisms. However, a recent analysis of trends in biodiversity funding (UNEP/CBD/COP/10/INF) shows that the funds available for biodiversity conservation declined in 2008 when compared to the levels in 2007.
Globally, spend on biodiversity is estimated as only $8–12 billion annually (TEEB, 2009), the great majority in developed countries. The annual funding gap for an effective and representative terrestrial protected areas network alone – just one component of what is needed – is about $25 billion per annum (Bruner et al., 2004). Including marine protected areas too might double this figure, to c. $50 billion, while an order of magnitude greater investment (c. $300 billion/year) could be needed for additional adaptation measures in the wider land and seascape in the face of climate change (Berry, 2009). This last figure is based on extrapolation of agricultural remediation costs in one developed country, and could well be an unreliable estimate: however, it is clear that the costs of effective conservation are at least an order of magnitude, and likely more, than current investment. At the same time, the cost of inaction and allowing the continued loss of biodiversity are far bigger, estimated to reach 7% of global GDP (i.e., c. $4.3 trillion) by 2050 (TEEB, 2009).