Atlas Of Risks Of Climate Change On The Egyptian Coasts And Defensive Policies (2 volumes) By Prof. Dr./ Khaled Abd El-Kader Ouda Professor Emeritus of Stratigraphy and Paleontology, Geology Department Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt This study aims at evaluating qualitatively and quantitatively the importance of the risks to which the Egyptian coasts— a distance of about 3500 km—are exposed, as a result of rising sea level in amounts up to one meter. It also suggests traditional and non-traditional ways of defense, that may help to avoid or reduce these risks, or to adapt to them. The results of this study about climate change and its impact on the Egyptian coasts will be a significant resource to researchers, experts and decision makers working at private institutions and in public administrations, to plan strategies in order to organize plans for the protection of the Nile Delta and other parts of the Egyptian coast as sea level rises. The study examines the causes and consequences of the global warming as described in reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; and their Fourth Assessment Report as well as in subsequent scientific reports by various research groups worldwide. It also examines the impact of global warming on the level of seas and oceans and the potential risks for the Middle East and North Africa, as contained in the report of the scientific team of the World Bank, 2007. The study considers successively 1) the topography and geomorphology of the Nile Delta ; 2) the impacts on the Nile Delta during the last century of the combined effects of a) severe coastal erosion processes, b) sediment deficiency since the construction of the Aswan high Dam, c) sea level rise, d) delta subsidence as well as e) human impacts on the coastline; 3) the present geomorphology of the northern lakes of the Nile Delta after having been suffered from intensive human impacts which have led to drying and reduction in surface area by about 50% -83% of their original size during the last 25 years; 4) the various scenarios of the impact of sea level rise on these coasts. This discussion ends with an illustration of the risks on the Egyptian coasts on topographic maps designated for all coasts beaches and shores using Digital Elevation Data derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM NASA space. The impact that sea level rise of up to one meter is expected to have is illustrated graphically on various coasts: the Northwest Delta (West of Rosetta Branch), the North Delta (between the two Nile branches), the Northeast Delta (East of Damietta Branch); the shores of Alexandria, From Abu Qir east to Agami west; the shores of the coastal plain of the northern Western Desert from Alexandria east to Sallum west; the shores of the northern coastal plain of Sinai Peninsula, the western and eastern coasts of the Gulf of Suez, the western coast of the Gulf of Aqaba , the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea from Hurghada north to Halaib south, and the coasts of the Bitter Lakes and Temsah Lake along the Suez Canal. The topographical maps of all coasts were matched with satellite images to evaluate quantitatively the size of the area that, for each coast, will be affected by sea level rise. The sources of threat were identified for each coastal region, along shores, sandy belts, eastern and western bridges of the western branch of the Nile (Rosetta Branch, North of Fowa), eastern bridge of the eastern branch of the Nile (Damietta Branch, north of Damietta), and western bridge of the Suez Canal (north of Ballah). The low-lying coastal areas, wet and dry, which are threatened of marine invasion either directly from the sea or indirectly through the northern lakes, and the areas where subsurface leakage may occur as a consequence of sea-level rise have been delineated and measured. They are also graphically represented on both topographic maps and corresponding satellite images. Cities, neighborhoods, villages, ranches and agricultural land that are threatened of isolation as a result of marine invasion have been determined with great detail. The environmental problems that plague the Nile Delta because of uncontrolled human activities, and which, associated with climate impacts contribute to make the Nile Delta potentially one of the coastal areas in the world most threatened by the rise in global sea level during this century are also discussed The study includes 734 colored plates among which detailed topographic, geomorphologic and geographic maps of coasts and beaches of Egypt as they are today, and as they are expected to become with rising sea levels; The sources of threat, the new shore line expected due to sea level rise and the dimensions of the threatened wet and dry lands are graphically represented on satellite images downloaded electronically on the topographical maps. Means of protection are proposed and locations of deep seawalls, sandy dams and bridges are suggested as well as land barriers to be set aside to counter the invasion of the sea off the coast of the Nile Delta. It is understood that these proposals may be suitably modified by experts in order to reduce the costs associated with coastal protection as long as efficiency and benefits are not lost. The topography, geomorphology and geology of the Qattara Depression, are described with the hope to revive the proposal of connecting the Qattara Depression to the Mediterranean Sea to reduce the effects of sea level rise on the Nile Delta while creating a positive economic return. The national need to implement the Qattara -Mediterranean project has been emphasized in order to save billions of Dollars that will be lost as a result of the marine invasion of the northern coast of the Nile Delta. All earlier objections encountered in the implementation of this project have been refuted. An economic feasibility of this project has also been proposed in light of the new economic innovations. It is also proposed the most appropriate places from the standpoint of topography to create a surface channel between the Mediterranean and Qattara Depression. The view is expressed of the need to restore a natural balance to the River Nile. That balance was lost after the construction of the High Dam at Aswan. The negative effects of the High Dam on the Egyptian Delta must be assessed and work must be immediately undertaken to remedy them for the benefit of future generations. Contact-Us http://www.climatechangeatlas.com/ Al Resala For Arab Information Technology Group address: 10 botros ghaly st roxy cairo egypt phone:002 -24534647 fax: 002-24534655 mail: info@al-resalagroup.com
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